Family Newsletter nr 30.....November 1997

Dear Cousins, It's been a while since the last Newsletter. You may have thought I had giver up on you. I have been very busy with my business and have had to put a lot of personal matters aside for a while. It looks like it will be nose to the grindstone for another year. Not to worry, I will still publish but I can't get as involved as I have in the past. Wishing you all the best....Lyman

Date sent: Sat, 13 Sep 1997 21:00:26 -0400
From: Scott & Nancy McKee <>
Subject: Dugans from CORK

I would like to share my family tree:

Thomas Dugan born about 1835 in Cork, Ireland died Dec 28, 1894 Pittsburgh, PA. He married Honora HORAN (born 1830s died Feb 7, 1881) in the mid 1850s. They had two children before immigrating to Pittsburgh, Pa: Charles Dugan born about 1856 (married Ella Sayers) died April 1, 1931 and Mary Dugan born about 1857 (married Patrick Doyle) died Dec 3, 1893. They arrived in Pittsburgh by 1862. Additional children born in Pa:

Thomas born 1860 died August 18, 1862
Timothy born May 24, 1862 died January 16, 1872
Ellen born Oct 9, 1864 (married William Kelly) died Jan 3, 1950
Margaret born Sep 26, 1866 - no further information on Margaret
Catherine born Sep 1, 1868 died April 22, 1904
George born May 7, 1870 died Dec 16, 1925
Honora born May 31, 1872 died Sep 10, 1873

I do not know if Thomas had any siblings.

Charles Dugan was my G-Grandfather. Willing to share info on my family.

Nancy Dugan McKee, 128 Chestnut Street, Zelienople, Pa 16063

From: "John Duggan" <>
Subject: another duggan
Date sent: Sat, 13 Sep 97

Hi Lyman, My name is John H. Duggan. I reside in Rockport, Tx. I belong to a branch of Duggans who resided in Houston during the Great Depression. I was surfing the net and found your home page. I have read some of the commentary about the origins of the Duggan name -- that we have Spanish ancestors. Interesting, but I theorize that we came from a mixed Danish-Irsih ancestry. This is based on some information I secured from Davis's book, The History of Wales. If you are interested or just want to establish connections with another very large part of the Duggan clan, send me some e-mail.


Date sent: Mon, 8 Sep 1997
Subject: Hello Cuz!

Hi my name is Kerryann Lyn Duggan I am currently residing in Northen California. My Grandfather was Martin Duggan of West Acton, Mass. He had 4 children 2 sons and 2 daughters

Edward and
Frederick (my Dad) and
Catherine and

He was married to a wonderful woman named Alvretta Conquest. I am soo happy to see this site. Looks like alot of us Duggans stayed in Massachusetts after we arrived here. My grandfather's parents were the immigrants He was born here. They were from County Cork. I used to know the town but it escapes me at the moment. I have always been curious about my geneaology. I will have to ask my Grandma the names of Great grandparents now! :) Boy I am sorry this was so chaotic I was just really excited about finding you guys! Sincerely,

Your long lost Cousin, Kerryann :)

From: Molly Duggins <>
Subject: Duggins
Date sent: Wed, 27 Aug 1997

Dear Mr. Duggan,

My name is Molly Duggins and I am from Marshall, Missouri. My mother has done extensive research on our family (Duggins) and I am stuck on a William Dugan who came over with his mother from Ireland. We have a family bible that was created in Edinbourgh Scotland that has been passed down. I am at work right now and don't have any dates or names with me, but I thought I would contact you and see if you may be able to help me. I have submitted our family tree to the family tree website. I can provide you with any information you may need. I look forward to your response.

Remaining truly yours,

Molly Duggins

Date sent: Sun, 7 Sep 1997
Subject: Dougans

HI, I just found your web page. There arent many DOUGANs in the world. We are from Massachusetts. My grandfather died in 1954? He has two sons Robert and Richard and a daughter Edith.

We have finally started a new generation. (We seem to be slow breeders). I have cousins Daniel, Dave and John Dougan a brother David and a sister Roberta Dougan. We also have some 2nd cousins. Some of their names are Karen, William and David.

My great grandfather came over from Ireland. He was quite a character. He changed the spelling of our name to DOUGAN. so that people could say it. Now noone can say OR spell it correctly!

As I understand it he "tied one on" one day and decided to paint our home's chimney blue. Since the house was white with a red roof it sure made a grand (and patriotic) sight!

Keep up the good work!!!!! Joan Dougan, Orlando Florida

Send reply to:
Subject: The "DOUGAN' derivation of things

Lyman- Could you spend a bit of time helping me get in touch with with other "Dougan's" there a family association, etc. ? (Or is yours the only one.....) Thanks- Mark Dougan

Date sent: Sat, 19 Sep 1998 22:02:27 -0700
From: Patrick Doohan <>
Subject: Doohan, Doughan, Duggan,etc.

Hi Lyman,

Thanks for the effort that you're putting into this site. It's appreciated. I'm writing to see if you are aware of a couple of other variants of the Duggan name - being Doohan and Doughan. The Doohans (Duachain in Irish) hail from County Donegal. The ones in County Clare are really Doughans (Dubhchon- BLACK (dubh) HOUND (chon)). We purchased a family coat of arms from Ireland a few years ago, and it is the same as your larger crest - the crescent and estoiles on a blue background. A couple of famous Doohans are James Doohan, 'Scotty' from Star Trek; and Mick Doohan of Australia, a champion motorcycle racer. My great grandfather came to New Brunswick from Ireland 150 years ago. We're few in number, and perhaps we could be included in you website.

Again, thanks for what you are doing.

Patrick Doohan

From: "James E. Bradley" <>
Subject: Dugan Surname Info

Howdy Folks! I was browsing the other day and found the Dugan Page. If it works correctly there should be a MSWord file attached (Combo FGS) which contains my (Jim's) connection to the Dugan - not blood - just by a marriage. My GGGrandMother, Josephine M. PUTNAM's half-sisters, Nancy Flora PUTNAM and Mary Jane PUTNAM, both married Dugans; John and William Harper DUGAN, respectively. Also, there is a book, "Pioneers of the Blue Stem Prairie" which contains written DUGAN histories for Isaac Franklin and Sutton Fowler families/descendants (items #719 and #720). In the first case written by Mrs. George Dugan of Leonardville, KS, a gg daughter-in-law. The second item by Mrs Ray William of South Salem, OR, a ggg daughter-in-law. I would xerox these two stories for you if you wish - two pages total.

-- Jim and Marian Bradley
13840 Hwy 99 Westmoreland, KS

ed: Sorry but I can't read the MSWord file....If anyone needs the file please contact Jim an Marian

From: "Phillip Dougan" <>
To: <>
Subject: Dougan/Duggan family name its the same.20+yrs research.
Date sent: Sat, 15 Nov 1997

Phillip G Dougan , My relative in Australia has spent over 20 yrs researching the Dougan / Duggan name, My ancestors from Ireland and Scotland have a very colorful history and one spent 4yrs in the tower of London captured after a battle with William Wallace in South West Scotland.

From: "Sheree Robinette" <>
To: <>
Subject: Duggan genealogy
Date sent: Sat, 15 Nov 1997

Do you have a connection to Jack or Robert Duggan. They were brothers and I believe they were born in Georgia. They married 2 of my great aunts , sisters, Pauline and MaryRuth Collins. Pauline and Mary Ruth were born in Atlanta about 1930 and moved to Tampa about 1950's. Pauline was born in Winterville, GA about 1915. Pauline and Jack adopted a son Alvin. Mary Ruth is 15 years younger than Pauline. She had 4 children. One son died of cancer at abt 25 years of age in Tampa. Pauline and Mary Ruth's parents were Frank Collins and Leila Chambers. Frank's ancestry unknown , but his death certificate lists Swain County, NC as his place of birth. Leila's parents were Lee Chambers and Mary Smith. Mary Smith was born in Watkinsville, GA. My grandmother, Estelle, was born in or near Athens, GA.

From: Donald Duggan<>
Date sent: Fri, 7 Nov 1997 19:42:15 -0500 (EST)
Copies to:
Subject: Duggans of mine

Hi Lyman , you wrote to me well over a year ago and it has taken that long to ugrade my computer to reach you.

My name Is Donald Duggan. My dad came to N.Y.C. at the age of 16. His name was Dennis, but his aunt thinking it all to common changed it to Duran. He worked his way through night school to become a designer of steam fittings on Navy battleships. He married Florence Miller from Nova Scotia and had six kids me being one of them. Dennis had three sisters one still alive ( Bridie ) and six brothers three of them still survive (Ned, Jack, and Pat , all in their eighties. My dad Dennis died while on a vacation revisiting his family in County Cork, Buttevint in July of 1970 at age 59. His brother Daniel came to the states in his twenties worked as a carpenter in N.Y.C. till about age 55, then returned to Ireland married and had two children. One of which Dennis is here in Phoenix for 6 months working for Intel of Ireland. My brother, sister, and I visited Ireland this August to see our uncles aunt and cousins. My granmother's side is O'connell and we also stayed and met with them. We got some very informed oral history told by our uncle Ned and Pat. There are no short answers when you ask them about questions of history. It was a remarkable trip and we got to pay respect to our uncle Dan who passed away in 96 and was buried in the same grave with my dad and an infant daughter of Dan. I realize I am not very organized and documentation is sketchy. Someday I will list a family tree with the help of family. For all those wishing to visit Ireland it is wonderfull to visit. The bed and breakfasts abundant and the people try to make you smile. My uncle Pat says "There are only two countries in the world that when you fly over them all you see is green .Ireland is one and Papua New Guinea is the other.

Thanks Lyman .....Donald J Duggan 1645 W. Baseline Rd. # 2171 Mesa AZ 85202

Date sent: Wed, 29 Oct 1997
From: Paddy Duggan <>
Subject: Dugan Family Research

Dear Lyman, I'm glad to say I am getting a bit more used to this computor mail.Thanks to you I am now putting down my findings and as I go over the material it is clear many avenues could still be investigated more so I'm off on a new search, will keep in touch.Paddy Duggan from the Castlewellan Duggans of County Down (now in Australia)

Date sent: Sat, 25 Oct 1997 09:27:05 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: The Family crest

What does the text mean. Where would I find more information about the first recorded Dougans in Scotland, who arrived on the Western isles in the early seventeenth century?

Thanks in advance for any assistance you can provide.

Hi Cousin, We have a web page up with some information on the family crests.
You will find it at:

From: "Erling Dugan" <>
Date sent: Fri, 24 Oct 1997
Subject: The Dugans

Hello !

My name is Erling Dugan. I thought you might be interested to no that not everyone who has the name Dugan can trace their roots back to Ireland.

My grandfather came from a farm in Norway called Dugan. The name means a flat piece of land by the river. In other words it has nothing to do with Ireland. Through the years it has always been interesting having a very Norwegian first name like Erling and an Irish last name. And a lot of people choose not to believe that Dugan can be anything but Irish.

If you ever are in contact with another Norwegian Dugan please put them in touch with me. All the Norwegian Dugans trace their roots back to the same farm so we are all related.

Good luck with you genealogy work,

Erling Dugan

Date sent: Wed, 22 Oct 1997 17:18:48 -0500
From: Marcia Philbrick <>
Subject: DUGGIN info

I am a descendant of James CRAWFORD who married Sally DUGGINS in 1799 in Garrard Co., KY. Shortly after their marriage, they migrated to Preble County, Ohio where the lived till their death. Based on deeds and other data in Ohio, I believe that Sally DUGGINS was a widow with two young sons when she married James CRAWFORD. I have compiled information on these men and their families. It is posted as part of my CRAWFORD information

Please feel free to link the DUGGINS home page to my DUGGINS data.

Marcia Philbrick

From: PAUL A. Duggan<>
Date sent: Thu, 16 Oct 1997 19:31:28 +0000
Subject: Col J.P. Duggan Author HISTORY of THE IRISH ARMY(Gill&Mc Millan)

COL JOHN P.Duggan living in 19 Cedarmount Rd Mt Merrion Co Dublin tel 01135312-889004 author of the first ever History of the Irish Army and author of Neutral Ireland and the Third Reich is alive and well and will be 80 next year.He is The chief of all the Duggan Clans in Ireland a native of Kilmallock Co Limerick. He invites all Duggans in good standing to contact him . Remember our motto is Virtute et Valore and OUR cOAT OF ARMS IS BLUE WITH HALF MOON

REGARDS PAUL A. Duggan ( Son of clan leader) and owner of European American Van Lines Inc

Date sent: Sun, 12 Oct 1997
From: Meredith Selden <>
Subject: Where are we from???

I found you by accident, and was so glad I did! I have lots of Irish blood, but the most predominant is that of the Dugan-yes, one "g", family.

My grandmother is a Dugan as was her father whose mother was a McCaferty. We, the rest of my family and I, have been to Ireland several times and have been searching for relatives! If you have any information at all on a) where they are, or b) how we can find them, let me know! I am 16 years old and living in Connecticut.

My ancestors arrived in America from somewhere around the Ring of Kerry- I think- during the potato famine all the way until around 1918 when my great grandparents arrived. The family lived in the Reading, PA area and intermarried with the Zeigler family from Germany. Please let me know what I can do to find where we are from!! Thanks! -Meredith Selden (yes, I know my last name is Russian!)

Subj: Duggan Family
Date: 97-10-04 21:48:55 EDT

Hi Just found out about your newsletter yesterday. Enjoying reading the back issues. I also just found out this week that an ancestor was a Duggan. Mary or Jane Duggan from McMinnville area in Tennessee. Married Henry Harrison White.

Tony Veal <>

From: Kelly Duggan Ward<>
Date sent: Thu, 2 Oct 1997 13:19:52 -0400 (EDT)
Subject: Duggan help

Hi my name is Kelly jo Duggan Ward. I am just starting to trace my name Duggan. I came across something about a Duggan newsletter. If you could please give me some more info about this I would greatly appreciate it. My Fathers name was Charles Wayne Dugganl, His father was Lone Reece Duggan, his father was Marion Wilson Duggan. We are from the East Tennessee area.

Thank you kelly

Date sent: Wed, 01 Oct 1997 17:00:25 -0500
From: Billie Hair <>
Subject: DUGGAN

Tom Duggan b:? born in Onchan, Isle of Man and died before 1949 in Butte, Montana who married Mary Ann Reed in Dalton in Furness, Lancashire Co., England on June 1883. Mary Ann was born July 2, 1864 in Ardishaig, Issle of Kentyre. Their daughter was Winifrede Virginia Duggan b: 1892 in West Virginia. Tom Duggan's father was George Duggan and his mom was Rebecca-no dates or places known. Any info appreciated.

Thanks, Billie Ruth at:

From: Linda Ehle Pierce<>
Date sent: Tue, 30 Sep 1997
Subject: DUGGAN

I saw your post in rootsweb archives and the Duggan surname caught my eye. My grandfather was Clarence DUGGAN CARR, b. 4/16/1897 in Laurens Co. GA. His father was James William "Urly" Carr & his mother was Emma Crumbley. That's as far back as I can get, but I'm sure the middle name DUGGAN was an ancestors surname. Any leads or info on these Laurens Co. GA DUGGANs? Thanking you in advance,

Linda Ehle Pierce Tampa, FL

Date sent: Sun, 28 Sep 1997 07:05:59 -0400
Subject: Registering our existence
To: Lyman Duggan <>

Hello Lyman Duggan

I came across the Duggan Homepage on the Internet and thought I would register the existence of this branch of the Duggan family.

I have not done any research into the history of my family, but my brother has recently joined the Leicester Family History Society so watch this space.

I can only go as far back as my Great Grandfather at the moment, an Edward Duggan, who settled in Leicester, England, after moving from Cork around 1900. He was a member of the Leicester Fire Service and lived in Carlton Street, Leicester.

I do not know yet who he was married to but he had eight children: Edward John (Jack) my Grandfather George Frank Alice Liz Annie Nell but not in that order.

He was reputed to be a very hard man, and Carlton Street was apparently a very tough area at that time. His son, George, told my father that Edward had wrestled "The World's strongest Man", (Hackenschmitt) at the Palace Theatre, Leicester.

John (known as Jack) who was my Grandfather had five children: Dennis John (my Father) (b.1922) Barbara Gerald (d.1990) Patricia and Margaret (twins)

He was married to Doris Ida Garrett. He was employed at the Grand Hotel, Leicester as a lorry driver prior to World War II. He was 41 years old when he enlisted in the RAF at the outbreak of World War II. He was responsible for laying the flares on the runways to guide in the returning aircraft. At the end of the war he returned to employment at the Grand Hotel, but his previous position no longer existed as they had disposed of the lorries, so he was employed as a hotel porter until his retirement.

Dennis John Duggan married Joyce Lapworth (b.1925) in 1946 and had three children: Dennis John junior (b.1947) Pamela (b.1951) James (b.1953) (myself) All still alive. Dennis John jnr. still resides in Leicester, Pamela lives in Suffolk in the same village as my parents, and I am living in Kent. However, we were all born and raised in Leicester. My sister Pam has two children and I have one daughter.

As I mentioned earlier, my brother Den has recently become interested in the family history and has joined the Leicester Family History Society. He will gladly try to help with any enquiries, but he is a novice at this stage.

We are all very interested in hearing from any relevant contacts. My postal address is, 3 Plantin House Wellesley Road Ashford Kent TN24 8ES England.

My brothers address in Leicester is: 9 Oakland Avenue Leicester LE4 7SG England

This e-mail is intended for publication in the Newsletter

Kind Regards Jim Duggan

Date sent: Sat, 27 Sep 1997
From: Perry Carpenter <>
Subject: Dougan Family

Do you have any information about when and why the split in the Duggan/Dougan family name occurred. My father is currently trying to trace the Dougan lineage, any help would be greatly appreciated. Maybe we could swap info.

Date sent: Wed, 24 Sep 1997
From: John E. Duggan<>
Subject: Duggan Book

Lyman, I've finally located you again. It's been a long time, however I wanted to follow up on the Duggan Book I've mentioned in the past. It is entitled "From the Cottage at Duggan's Cross" by Robert E. Nichols. Mr. Nichols passed away before the book was published and his family finished the work with the publisher.

I haven't had much time to read it yet (Most of my reading time goes into text books for my masters degree). I purchased 3 copies - one for each of my children. I would suspect it was a limited publishing, but you could contact Mr. Nichols Widow at the following address : Eula H. Nichols 18525 Dundee Ave. Homewood, IL 60430 If you cannot obtain a copy, let me know, I would be glad to loan you one of my copies. Your 'cuz' John E. Duggan 924 S. Third St. St. Charles, IL 60174 Also, best to use my AOL account

From: Jeff Duggan<>
To: <>
Subject: In Search of Duggan Family History
Date sent: Wed, 24 Sep 1997

Hello, My name is Jeff Duggan. I am writing this letter in hope that further information into my farthers search for family history can be obtained. Iam excited to be able to contact others and would like to thank Jim Duggan for his advice .

My interest in Family history probably commenced in 1965. It followed discussions at the funeral of a family member. I was prompted by the relization that the members of that generation were fast leaving us, with the consequent loss of family history.

The early enthusiam when information was readily available gradually warned as investigations became more difficult.

Richard Duggan, born 30 October 1819, and Elizabeth Raymond, born 12 October 1826,were married on the 8th June 1845 at the English Independant Chapel In Merthyr Tydfil,Wales. The marriage certificate showed that Richard was a Batchelor, miner and lived in Georgetown, (part of Merthyr.)

His farther was Richard Duggan a farmer. It also showed that Elizabeth Raymond was a spinster, a servant and that her farther was William Raymond, a miner. Richard migrated to Australia in a ship, (White Star) which left Livepool, England on 22 June 1857 and arrived in Melbourne on 4th September 1857.

Elizabeth followed almost 3 years later on the 5th April 1860 aboard the Yong America. She arrived in Melbourne 2 July 1860 and was accompanied by their sons Richard 11 years, Thomas 9 years, and Francis 6 years. (Copies of Ships manifests are available.) Other children William born 1846, Margarat born 1850, and Mary Jane born1856 apparently died before Richard sailed in 1857.

There were to be twelve children of the marriage, of whom six died shortly after birth, or at a very young age. Living conditions including sanitation were very poor for working class people and there was a lot of sickness which could have contributed to the early deaths.

Richard died at Chewtonon 16 December 1875 aged 56 years.

Thomas Duggan, Richards son (My Great grandfarther ) married Agnes Mc Cance on 30th December 1873 at Chewton. During the ensuring twenty years , Agnes had twelve children. she died on 6th August 1893, aged just under 43 years, and one week after the birth of her twelfth child.

I trust this information may be of interest, and look forward to further contact with others interested in family history. If any one could asssit in furthering our contacts in the aim of traceing Richard Duggan would you please contact myself on

Yours Faithfully Jeff Duggan

Chris & Winsome Duggan <>

Thanks Lyman

How are you keeping , I printed alredy last week they have enthused me greatly and I am having alot of success from the latest News Letters , could you possibly provide me with Eddie Duggans full postal address I would appreciate that and I would be writing to him ASAP.

Keep up the good work I will send you more info later I have just began to hire a genea logist in Cork Ireland this seems to be ourbmain stumbling block I will let you know how it goes

Kind Regards Chris & Winsome Duggan
Main Road Glen Huon Tasmania Australia Post Code 7109

Date sent: Wed, 17 Sep 1997
Subject: The "DOUGAN' derivation of things

Lyman- Could you spend a bit of time helping me get in touch with with other "Dougan's" there a family association, etc. ? (Or is yours the only one.....)

Thanks- Mark Dougan

Date sent: Thu, 04 Sep 1997
From: Chuck Dugan <>
Subject: another Dugan


I was surfin and came across your page. What info do you need? father, mother, grandparents? I'd be glad to contribute.

Chuck Dugan.

From: "Jean Littlefield and/or Charlene Denny" <>
To: <>
Copies to: <>
Date sent: Sun, 31 Aug 1997

Dear Mr. Duggan:

This message is also being sent to Lyman for his archives. And, I am mailing a copy by "snail mail" to be certain it is received by you. I am a bit new to the internet and the e-mail process.

My sister, Charlene, and I are researching our family history. We read your letter in issue 26 on the Duggan Dugan Dougan Genealogy Homepage & Archive that Lyman processes on the interent and wonder if we have a fit in our ancestry. (This computer age is fantastic - Lyman is in Florida, I am in California and you are in Tasmania.)

We are descended from Thomas Douggan married on June 23, 1857, at Trinity Church, Adelaide to Jane Megarity, both ages listed as 30. They had two sons: William b. 13 Feb. 1856, and Joseph b. (unknown).

William married on 15 Dec. 1888, in South Australia, Sarah Ann Tunstall b. South Australia, 14 May 1859. Joseph married Sarah Ann Bruce(Braur) b. France (abt. 1840).

William and Sarah Ann (Tunstall) Duggan had William Tunstall b. Adelaide, South Australia on 17 Dec. 1889; and Marian b. Adelaide, South Australia on 17 May 1891.

William Tunstall Duggan married on 14 Aug. 1915, in Illinois, USA, Miriam Charlene Fisher. They had Irene Adelaide b. 1916, in South Carolina, USA; Charlene Marie b. 1923 in Washington, USA; and Jean Fisher b. 1926 in Adelaide, South Australia.

Our searching at this point is to locate the country/area from which Thomas Douggan departed prior to his arrival in Australia (possible Northern Ireland). Jane Megarity is possibly Irish and may be from Scotland.

If you have any information that appears to fit any of the above, we would appreciate hearing from you. In addition, any ideas you think could possibly help us would be greatly appreciated.


Jean (Fisher Duggan) Littlefield

P.O. 1065, Twain Harte, CA 95383, USA e-mail:

Date sent: Thu, 3 Jul 97
From: "David Duggan" <>
To: "Lyman Duggan" <>
Subject: RE: Research Update

I see you are an early bird also. Yes, I can get more specific information especially from my grandparents to me. I am having a barbecue this weekend with my father, aunts, uncles, etc. I printed your newsletters and I will be showing it to them. I am sure they will be excited as I am with the geneology search. The hard part will be researching from my great grandparents and back.

I will probably send you an update next week after the barbecue. Thanks again. Happy 4th.

Dave Duggan (

Please document your Duggan Genealogy and send it to me for publishing and for the Archive. When you have new data, dates etc let me know and they will be published and archived too. Please let me know the Issue Number so I can go back and make the changes/additions. These Archives will be available for many years to come...hopefully forever. For this reason, it is a good idea to include your mailing address so that interested parties can contact you years into the future.

Search the Archives

Many People ask me to search for a relative so I have set up a system that makes things easier until we have a site search engine.

The file "Dug1-16" contains all issues 1 through 16.

The file "Dug17-25" contains all issues 17 through 25.

Once the file (over 250Keach) is loaded, you may use your Web Browser's Find or Search command to search for a particular name of interest.. You can click on the file you want above and it will load for you.

end of nr 30